Wednesday, October 11, 2006

検討課題:貨幣と差異

Kaisetsu氏が説くように、貨幣の起源を、王権的なもの、つまり、王権の観念・概念像として、考察を始めよう。思う に、ここには、普遍性、一般性、特異性が現れている。普遍性は、王権的観念・概念である。それは、ある意味で、イデア的と言えるのである。換言すると、メ ディア・シナジー・エネルギーをもつものである。
 一般性は、これと関係するが、数的価値である。そして、特異性は、その貨幣自体の希少価値性である。貴金属性である。普遍性と特異性は差異と、一般性は同一性と関係するだろう。しかし、ここでは、正確に検討しないといけない。
 王権的普遍性とは、差異且つ
同一性である。ここには、矛盾両立があるのである。貨幣自体の特異性は、この王権的差異と関係するだろう。つまり、金貨や銀貨は、王権的差異と一如である。そして、貨幣の数的価値=一般性は、当然、同一性であり、これも王権的普遍性と関係する。図式化しよう。
     
      差異・特異性・・・貨幣自体
      ↗
王権的普遍性
メディア・エネルゲイア
      

      一般性・同一性・・・貨幣の数的価値



 では、王権的普遍性とは、プラトニック・シナジー理論から見ると何だろうか。これは、先にも述べたが、父権的一神教的エネルゲイアと等価であろう。ヤハ ウェに等価である。ここで、想起するのは、イエスが、「カエサルのものは、カエサルへ」と言ったことであるが、しかし、貨幣は、神的なのであるから、単に カエサルのものではないのであるから、イエスの言葉は誤謬である。さらに、想起するのは、貨幣とキリストが等価であると、以前述べたことである。ロゴスの 受肉としてのイエス・キリストを考えると、貨幣としてのキリストということがよくわかるだろう。ロゴスが神的普遍性であり、それが、物質化されたものが、 キリストになるのだから。
 ここで、解答すると、貨幣=王権的普遍性とは、メディア・シナジー・エネルゲイアの同一性構造である、ということである。不連続的差異論的に言えば、メ ディア界のエネルゲイアをもつメディア/現象境界同一性構造性である。しかも、貴金属として、特異性化されているので、個体的なものである。だから、やや 極論的になるが、メディア界=メディア平面そのもの、差異共振シナジー様相そのものと言えそうである。そう、正に、メディアである。貨幣は、理想的な媒体 と言えるのである。
 問題は、連続・同一性構造である。メディア・エネルゲイアは、この場合は、王権・権力であるが、それが、貨幣の連続・同一性の数的構造を実効的に保障し ているのである。(信用とは、王権・権力であろう。)そして、この連続・同一性構造への傾斜が、差異や特異性の否定・排除・隠蔽へとつながるのであり、金 融・拝金資本主義においては、まさに、そうなっているのである。
 ここで、ルネサンス(イギリス・ルネサンスのエリザベス朝時代も含む)を想起するのである。それは、差異の発現・顕現の時代である。差異共振シナジーの 発現・発動・作用の時代と考えられるのである。だから、貨幣・資本は、そのようなものとして、存したと考えられるのである。つまり、王権的普遍性をもつ貨 幣・資本が、差異共振シナジー化したと考えられるのである。貨幣のメディア・エネルゲイアが、差異共振シナジー・エネルゲイアになったということである。 しかし、近代合理主義、唯物科学が発展すると、メディア・エネルゲイアが失せてくるのである。それは、連続・同一性中心主義に取って代わられるのである。 これは、エンテレケイア化と言ってもいいかもしれない。貨幣が本来のメディアから、エンテレケイア・終極態=目的になったのである。これは、貨幣の堕落で ある。つまり、貨幣の連続・同一性化である。ここでは、メディア・エネルゲイアが排除されているのである。思うに、ここには、不兌換制度が原因としてある ように思えるのである。貨幣の特異性としての貴金属性を喪失したとき、それは、同一性の傾斜へと流動すると考えられるからである。(ここで、直観を言う と、貨幣の貴金属性、兌換制とは、貨幣の身体性である。貨幣の「精神」・「魂」・「霊魂」とは、貨幣の心身であり、身体且つ思惟である。不兌換通貨制と は、いわば、身体のない思惟、つまり、幽霊状態である。身体(延長)と思惟(意識)がそろって、「精神」・「魂」・「霊魂」が顕現するのである。)
 後で、再検討したい。

Thursday, September 28, 2006

Taoism 1

Taoism

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For other uses of the words "tao" and "dao", see Dao (disambiguation).

Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for:

(a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé Jīng) and the Zhuangzi.
(b) a family of organized Chinese religious movements such as the Zhengyi ("Orthodoxy") or Quanzhen ("complete reality") sects, which collectively trace back to Zhang Daoling in the late Han Dynasty;
(c) a Chinese folk religion.
The Chinese character Tào or Dào ("Way").
The Chinese character Tào or Dào ("Way").

The English word "Taoism" is used to translate the Chinese terms Daojiao (道教) and Daojia (道家). The character Tao 道 (or Dao, depending on the Romanisation scheme one prefers) literally means "path" or "way", but in Chinese religion and philosophy has taken on more abstract meanings. The compound Daojiao refers to Daoism as a religion; Daojia refers to the activity of scholars in their studies. It must be noted that this distinction is itself controversial and fraught with hermeneutic difficulty.

Much uncertainty exists over the meaning of "Taoism," not least because of its often being confused with such seemingly similar disciplines such as Zen. In some countries and contexts (for example, the national "Taoism" organisations of China and Taiwan), the label has come to be applied to the Chinese folk religion, which would otherwise not have a readily recognisable English name. However many, if not most, of its practitioners would not recognise "Taoism" (in any language) as the name of their religion. Moreover, the several forms of what we might call "elite" or "organised" Taoism often distinguish their ritual activities from those of the folk religion, which some professional "Taoists" (Daoshi) tend to view as debased.

Chinese alchemy, astrology, cuisine, several Chinese martial arts, Chinese traditional medicine, fengshui, and many styles of qigong breath training disciplines have some relationship with Taoism.

Contents

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History

Depending on how it is defined, Taoism's origins may be traced to the prehistoric Chinese religion; to the composition of the Tao Te Ching" (3rd or 4th century BCE); or to the activity of Zhang Daoling (2nd century CE). Alternatively, one could argue that "Taoism" as a religious identity only arose later, by way of contrast with the newly-arrived religion of Buddhism, or with the fourth-century codification of the Shangching and Lingbao texts.

Other accounts credit Laozi (reputed author of the Tao Te Ching/Dao de Jing) as the teacher of both Buddha, and Confucius. They describe early Taoism (Daoism) to ancient picture writing, mysticism, and indigenous Ancestor worship. Symbology on tortoise shells predates early Chinese calligraphy and is the basis of written Chinese from artifacts dated from prior to 1600 BCE.

Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)

By the early Han, Laozi came to be worshipped as divine—either in association with or conflated with the Yellow Emperor. A major text from this "Huang-Lao" movement would be the Huainanzi, which interprets earlier Taoist teachings in light of the quest for immortality (including drugs, sexual practices, and breathing techniques).

Zhang Daoling claimed to have begun receiving new revelations from Laozi in 142 CE, and founded the Tianshi ("Celestial Masters") sect around them. He performed spiritual healing, and collected dues of "five pecks of rice" from his followers (thus providing an alternative name for his movement). Zhang Daoling's major message was that the world-order as his followers knew it would soon come to an end, and be succeeded by an era of "Great Peace" (Taiping). In fact their activities did hasten the downfall of the Han dynasty. The same could be said of their contemporaries and fellow Taoists, the Yellow Turban sect. Zhang's grandson set up a theocratic state into what is now Sichuan province. Today's Zhengyi sect claims continuity with Zhang Daoling.

Laozi received imperial recognition as a divinity in 166 CE. The Yin and Yang and "five elements" theories date from this time, but were not yet integrated into Taoism.

The name Daojia comes from the Han Dynasty. In Sima Qian's history (chapter 63) it refers to immortals; in Liu Xiang it refers to Laozi and Zhuangzi. Daojiao came to be applied to the religious movements mentioned above. The two terms were used interchangeably until modern times. (We owe the distinction to Confucian writers.) The earliest Han commentary on the Dao De Jing is actually that of Heshang Gong (the "Riverside Master"), a religious Taoist.

Three Kingdoms Period (220–265)

The Xuanxue ("Mysterious Wisdom") school, including Wang Bi, focuses on the texts of Laozi and Zhuangzi but not necessarily on the organised religion.

Six Dynasties (316–589)

Taoist alchemist Ge Hong, also known as Baopuzi (抱扑子 The "Master Embracing Simplicity") was active in the third and fourth centuries CE and had great influence on later Taoism. Major scriptures were produced during this time period, including The Shangqing (上清 "Highest Purity") (365–370) and Lingbao (靈寶 "Sacred Treasure") scriptures (397–402) received at Maoshan. The Shangqing revelations were received by Yang Xi, a relative of Ge Hong's; the revelations emphasised meditative visualisation (內觀 neiguan). They spoke of the Shangqing heaven, which stood above what had been previously considered the highest heaven by Celestial Master Taoists. Yang Xi's revelations consisted of visitations from the residents of this heaven (the "Zhen Ren") many of whom were ancestors of a circle of aristocrats from southern China. These Zhen Ren spoke of an apocalypse which was to arrive in 384, and claimed that only certain people from this aristocratic circle had been chosen to be saved. For the first century of its existence, Shangqing Taoism was isolated to this aristocratic circle. However, Tao Hongjing (456–536) codified and wrote commentaries on Yang Xi's writings and allowed for the creation of Shangching Taoism as a popular religion. The Lingbao scriptures added some Buddhist elements such as chanted rituals, and an emphasis on universal salvation.

The Huahujing (化胡經 "Scripture of Conversion of Barbarians") claimed that Laozi went to India, where he taught less advanced doctrines under the name of Buddha. Buddhists found this claim objectionable, and emperors regularly condemned it. A similar claim is made in the Xishengjing (西升經 the "Scripture of Western Ascension").

Tang Dynasty (618–907)

Taoism gained official status in China during the Tang dynasty, whose emperors claimed Laozi as their relative. However, it was forced to compete with Confucianism and Buddhism, its major rivals, for patronage and rank. Emperor Xuanzong (685–762), who ruled at the height of the Tang, wrote commentaries on texts from all three of these traditions, which exemplifies the fact that in many people's lives they were not mutually exclusive. This marks the beginning of a long-lived tendency within imperial China, in which the government supported (and simultaneously regulated) all three movements.

Emperor Tang Gaozong added the Dao De Jing to the list of "classics" (jing, 經) to be studied for the imperial examinations; hence the appearance of -jing in its title.

Song Dynasty (960–1279)

Several Song emperors, most notably Huizong, were active in promoting Taoism, collecting Taoist texts and publishing editions of the Daozang.

The Quanzhen school of Taoism was founded during this period, and together with the Zhengyi Celestial Masters is one of the two schools of Taoism that have survived to the present.

The Song Dynasty saw an increasingly complex interaction between the elite traditions of organised Taoism as practised by ordained Taoist ministers (daoshi) and the local traditions of folk religion as practised by spirit mediums (wu) and a new class of non-ordained ritual experts known as fashi. This interaction manifested itself in the integration of 'converted' local deities into the bureaucratically organised Taoist pantheon and the emergence of new exorcistic rituals, including the Celestial Heart Rites and the Thunder Rites.

Aspects of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were consciously synthesised in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes.

Yuan Dynasty (1279–1367)

White Cloud Monastery, Beijing
Enlarge
White Cloud Monastery, Beijing

Neidan ("Interior Alchemy") became a major emphasis of the Quanzhen sect, whose practitioners followed a monastic model inspired by Buddhism. One of its leaders, Qiu Chuji became a teacher of Genghis Khan (and used his influence to save millions of lives). Originally from Shanxi and Shandong, the sect established its main center in Beijing's Baiyunguan ("White Cloud Monastery"). Before the end of the dynasty, the Celestial Masters sect (and Buddhism) again gained preeminence.

Nationalist Period (1912–1949)

Guomindang (China Nationalist Party) leaders embrace science, modernity, and Western culture, including (to some extent) Christianity. Viewing the popular religion as reactionary and parasitic, they confiscated some temples for public buildings, and otherwise attempted to control traditional religious activity.

People's Republic of China (1949–present)

The Communist Party of China, officially atheistic, initially suppressed Taoism along with other religions. Much of the Taoist infrastructure was destroyed. Monks and priests were sent to labor camps. This practice intensified during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, nearly eradicating most Taoist sites.

Deng Xiaoping eventually restored some religious tolerance beginning in 1982. Subsequently, communist leaders have recognised Taoism as an important traditional religion of China and also as a potential lucrative focus for tourism, so many of the more scenic temples and monasteries have been repaired and reopened.

Taoism is one of five religions recognised by the PRC, which insists on controlling its activities through a state bureaucracy (the China Taoist Association). Sensitive areas include the relationship of the Zhengyi Taoists with their sect's lineage-holder (he lives in Taiwan); and the status of various traditional temple activities (astrology, shamanism) which have been criticised as "superstitious" or "feudal".

Adherents

The number of "Taoists" is difficult to estimate, partly for definitional reasons (who counts as a Taoist?), and partly for practical ones (it is illegal for private parties to conduct surveys in China). The number of people practicing some aspect of the Chinese folk religion might number in the hundreds of millions. (Adherents.com estimates "Traditional Chinese religion" at nearly four hundred million). The number of people patronising Daoshi (Taoist "priests" or masters) would be smaller by several orders of magnitude, while the number of literary Daojia would be smaller yet. At the same time, most Chinese people and many others have been influenced in some way by Taoist tradition.

Geographically, Taoism flourishes best in regions populated by Chinese people: inland China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, and various Chinese diaspora communities. Taoist literature and art has influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, and these countries' folk religions have many common elements. "Organized" Taoism seems not to have attracted a non-Chinese following until modern times.

Beliefs

Religious Taoism (Daojiao)

A Taoist Temple in Taiwan. The religious practice of incense burning as well as images of the Fu Dog and Dragon guardian spirits can be seen.
Enlarge
A Taoist Temple in Taiwan. The religious practice of incense burning as well as images of the Fu Dog and Dragon guardian spirits can be seen.

Taoism is not a belief-centered religion, and there are no known Taoist creeds. At the same time, certain characteristic beliefs or assumptions can be identified. (See Taoist doctrine.)

Beyond the Chinese folk religion, various rituals, exercises, or substances are said to positively affect one's physical health (even to the point of immortality); align oneself spiritually with cosmic forces; or enable ecstatic spiritual journeys. These concepts seem basic to Taoism in its elite forms.

Philosophical Taoism (Daojia)

Philosophical Taoism does not refer to one Taoist school or group of philosophers. Philosophical Taoism is a part of Xuanxue and other lineages. Ultimately the distinction between "philosophical" and "religious" Taoism is as difficult to define as Taoism itself. "Religious" Taoists may never have read Laozi or Zhuangzi or any of the Daozang, and being called a Taoist may even seem unfamiliar or artificial.

Philosophical Taoism emphasizes various themes found in the Dao De Jing such as "nonaction" (wu wei), emptiness, detachment, the strength of softness (or flexibility), and The Zhuangzi such as receptiveness, spontaneity, the relativism of human ways of life, ways of speaking and guiding behavior. Most philosophical debate concerns dao--what way we should follow, but Taoists more directly question what a dao is, how or if we can know it and emphasize more than other schools the ways social daos depend on and presuppose natural daos. Their more detached discussion and their reluctance to formulate or advocate a social dao of their own means their discussions tend to be more playful and paradoxical than dogmatic. This makes their tone strikingly different from Confucian and Mohist texts.

Taoist commentators have been puzzled by the opening lines of the Dao De Jing, which has usually been translated:

The way which can be uttered, is not the eternal Way.
The name which can be named, is not the eternal Name.

(The original words are

道可道,非常道。 (dao (ways) can be spoken, not usual ways)
名可名,非常名。 (names can be named, not usual names))

In Chinese, "道" or "Dao" is used both as a noun and verb. 'Way' works well for the noun, but the translation for the verb "to speak" seems unmatched in meaning, unless we think in terms of "to advocate, to preach, to formulate etc." Notice in the second line, the noun and verb use of '名' seem closer in meaning, "names" and "to name". Concretely, a road is a dao--a guide for where to go or how to get where we want to go. However, daos can be marked in other ways--e.g. simply by pointing or putting signs "along the way" etc. Daoists are intrigued both by how daos are made by our walking (wearing a path) and by how we can read what way to go from natural signals (animal paths). The verb probably would be something like pointing, marking, setting an example or otherwise signaling which way to go.

It should also be noted that while the above has become a standard translation, scholars have noted it is grammatically and conceptually problematic. Grammatically, it has no article so could be read "a/any dao can be dao-ed, (but) this is not the constant dao-ing. A name can be named, (but) this is not the constant naming". Conceptually, the character for "constant"(常) is used philosophically to describe a dao that does not need to change in different times or societies and reliably guides behavior. Laozi later describes a dao as "reversing" and the texts emphasises opposites, i.e.: high and low, hard and soft, etc. The Mawangdui version of the text contains similar passages, vide: ch.1, 3, 40).

Thus, any terms we use to advocate a dao can be reversed and still guide behavior. The other term in the title (which, compounded with 'dao', formed the Chinese term for 'ethics') is 'de' (or 'te'). It is "the dao within" which may comprise the capacity we have to learn a way of life and the result of learning/practicing it. De should interpret the learned "way of life" into a correct pattern of behavior--hence its usual translation as "virtue" or "excellence." Other terms were later integrated into philosophical Taoism including yin and yang (closely related to Dialectical monism) and five elements (五行, wuxing) theories, and the concept of qi. Originally belonging to rival philosophical schools, these themes entered Taoism by way of Han Confucianism which focused on cosmic cycles and portents to guide the ruler's deportment dress, and so forth. They blend into Daoism as examples of "natural" dao with which any viable human dao must harmonise.

The way which can be uttered, is not the eternal Way.

While academic deconstructions of this phrase result in much confusion, there is also a much simpler interpretation by metaphor: The Way is like dancing. You can talk about dancing, but your talk about dancing isn't the dance itself. Nor does your description really teach someone else how to dance unless they figure it out how to apply it for themselves. No matter how complicated the description (words, sketches even video) it always lacks the entirety of what is.

This interpretation shares Korzybski's observation that "the map is not the territory".

Deities

Religious Taoism

Traditional Chinese religion is determinedly polytheistic. Its deities are arranged into a heavenly civil service that mirrors the bureaucracy of imperial China. Deities may be promoted or demoted. Many are said to have once been virtuous humans. The particular deities worshipped vary somewhat according to geography, and much more according to historical period (though the general pattern of worship is more constant).

There is also something of a disconnection between the set of gods which currently receive popular worship, and those which are the focus of elite Taoist texts and rituals. For example, the Jade Emperor is at the head of the popular pantheon, while the Celestial Masters' altar recognizes the deified Laozi (Laojun, "Lord Lao") and the Three Pure Ones in that position. Some texts explain that Laozi has sponsored the apotheosis of various other gods.

Philosophical Taoism

While a number of immortals or other mysterious figures appear in the Zhuangzi, and to a lesser extent in the Dao De Jing (e.g., the "mysterious female" in chapter 6), these have generally not become the objects of cultic worship. Academic commentators on Taoism are rather more likely to focus on the divinity of the Dao itself, which might be fruitfully compared to (and contrasted with) Western conceptions of God. Early texts describe Tao not as equal to "the One," but as a principle underlying both the One and the Many. One revealing phrase used to describe it is huntun (roughly, "chaotic mixture"). In the wake of Wang Bi, philosophical Taoists have tended to describe it as "nothingness," which is the origin of "being." (Cf. the apophatic tendencies of theism, including negative theology.)

Practices

Taoist charm from Tien Hau Temple in San Francisco.
Enlarge
Taoist charm from Tien Hau Temple in San Francisco.

Wednesday, September 27, 2006

イデア叡知光と阿弥陀如来

先に、イデア叡知光の問題を考察し、差異面の光と同一性面の光の2つの光の極性があり、併せてイデア叡知光と考えた。この問題は、実に本質的で、核心的である。
 ここで、基本から考えよう。1/4回転によって、零度差異共振シナジーが形成される。これは、メディア界=メディア平面である。零度差異共振シナジーは、「発光」していると考えられる。これを、私は、イデア叡知光と呼んでいるのである。
 しかし、メディア界=メディア平面は、主に二つの面をもつ。即ち、不連続・差異面(以下、差異面)と連続・同一性面(以下、同一性面)をもつ。そして、 イデア叡知光は、この両面性をもつと言えよう。差異面光(以下、差異光)と同一性面光(以下、同一性光)をもつ。つまり、イデア叡知光は、差異光と同一性 光の全く異なる2つの光を帯びることになるのである。そして、差異光は、おそらく、ロレンス等が言う暗い太陽dark sunに関係するのではないだろうか。そして、同一性光は、当然ながら、原太陽光ないし現象光となるだろう。ついでに、ダークエネルギーのことに触れる と、それは、差異光ないしイデア叡知光の物質的エネルギーを問題にしていると言えるのではないだろうか。
 まとめると、イデア叡知光とは、零度差異共振シナジーの光であり、それは、差異光と同一性光の両極・対極・極性をもつのである。
 さて、ここで思考を進展させると、差異面は差異極に、同一性面は同一性極になるのではないだろうか。つまり、ここでは、正に、太極の極性が形成されてい るのではないだろうか。(もっとも、これまで、ずっとメディア界・メディア平面を陰陽極性で考えてきたのではあるが。)そうならば、メディア平面は太極図 のようであり、差異光と同一性光との両極の光を発していることになるだろう。つまり、メディア平面光=イデア叡知光と は、差異と同一性の対極光であるということになる。(ここで、注意すべきは、同一性とは、疑似同一性であり、本来、連続性と考えた方が正しいのである。連 続・同一性志向性である。)つまり、差異/同一性の二重光であるということである。おそらく、この二重性は、混じってはいないのである。つまり、差異光と 同一性光とは、混じり合ってはいないのである。あくまで、対極光である。比喩的に言えば、闇と光との対極性がここにはあるのである。黒い光と白い光の対極 光である。暗い太陽と明るい太陽との二重太陽なのである。もっとも、太陽や光は、ここでは、原・プロトの意味である。現象界や物質のそれと見てはいけな い。(何度も言うと、ヌース理論の根本的誤謬は、メディア平面光=イデア叡知光と光子というメディア/現象境界=超越同一性構造における「光」=量子とを 混同して、同一視している点にある。半田氏がドゥルーズの差異=微分を基本にするのもむべなるかな。)
 以上のように考察すると、イデア叡知光とは、実に不思議な光であることがわかる。本体は、零度差異共振シナジーの光であるが、それは、対極光でもあるの である。一つの光であると同時に、「二つ」の光でもある。しかし、「二つ」とは、いわば、ヴェンダーンタ哲学の不二一元論の「二つ」である。あるいは、即 非の論理の「二つ」である。二即一である。あるいは、差異即同一性である。



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Waterland0_002.jpg

 さて、このようにイデア叡知光を再検討してみると、これは、実に、阿弥陀如来の光、とくに、阿弥陀三尊の様態に関係するように考えられるのである。後者 において、脇侍(きょうじ)として、観音菩薩、勢至菩薩をもつが、これは、イデア叡知光の対極と見ることができるのではないだろうか。両者、「見る」や光 に関係するのである。つまり、阿弥陀如来とは、イデア叡知光そのものであり、脇侍の観音菩薩と勢至菩薩はその対極光をなしていると見ることができるように 推察できるのである。
 さらに思考を展開すると、古事記の三柱の神、即ち、天之御中主神(あめのみなかぬしのかみ)・高皇産霊神(たかみむすひのかみ)・神産霊神(かみむすひ のかみ)とパラレルになりそうである。天之御中主神が、当然、イデア叡知光である阿弥陀如来である。そして、後の二者が陰陽光になる観音菩薩・勢至菩薩に 対応すると推察できるのである。つまり、日本の神話と仏教思想とは、イデア叡知光という共通の根源の光を見ていたことになると考えられるのである。ただ、 表現が異なるだけである。万教帰一である。
 そうならば、神仏習合とは、実に論理的な宗教的展開であると言えよう。そして、折口信夫が、『死者の書』で、山越阿弥陀の伝統的な宗教思想を復活させたのは、折口自身が、イデア叡知光を見ていたからであると考えられるのである。
 また、さらに付加すると、空海の両界曼荼羅であるが、思うに、大日如来が、イデア叡知光であり、金剛界曼荼羅と胎蔵曼荼羅が、対極世界を表現しているように思うのである。
 ここには、ゾロアスター教、仏教、神道が一致しているのである。
 ここで、ユダヤ教やキリスト教の「光」の問題に触れると、ヤハウェの光ないしキリストの光はイデア叡知光の一面、一極の光、即ち、同一性の光に 過ぎなかったと思うのである。旧約聖書の神名は、ヤハウェとエローヒム(神の複数形)の二つがあるのである。これは、推測するに、イデア叡知光の対極であ ると思うのである。ヤハウェが同一性光であり、エローヒムが差異光であると思われるのである。そうすると、ユダヤ・キリスト教には、根源のイデア叡知光が 明示ないし顕示されていないように思えるのである。箴言等は、イデア叡知光の智慧を表現していると思うのである。「光あれ」の光とは、同一性光、即ち、現 象光だと思うのである。どうも、ユダヤ・キリスト教には、イデア叡知光が、隠れてしまっているように思えるのである。イデア叡知光の神が、隠れ、忘却され てしまったように思えるのである。ここで、想起するのは、ハーマン・メルヴィルの名作『モービー・ディック(白鯨)』である。その中で、パラノイア的なエ イハブ船長が、セント・エルモの火に対して述べる言葉に、根源的な母なる神が示唆されているのである。父なる神を超えた神である。これこそ、失われたイデ ア叡知光の神と考えられるのである。
 やはり、ポスト・ユダヤ/キリスト教である。真に正統的な宗教の復活である。偏頗な宗教の時代は終焉したのである。そう、メルヴィルにおいて示唆されるゾロアスター教の光、そして、ニーチェにおけるツァラトゥストラと永遠回帰を考えると、結局、

ポスト・キリスト教であり、

イデア叡知光回帰なのである。

ゾロアスター教、仏教、神道、プラトン哲学の復活である。

西洋は滅びたのである。西洋は死滅したのである、永遠に!


p.s. ついでに、伝統的な三女神(三美神も含めて)であるが、これも、ここでの考え方が適用できるように考えられるのである。例えば、古代ギリシアの エレウシスの秘儀であるが、デーメーテールとは、イデア叡知光ではないだろうか。そして、復活する娘のコレーとは、対極光(死と生の対極性)を指すと考え られよう。コレーとペルセポネ(冥界の神)は一体である。そう、ペルセポネ(死)とコレー(生)が対極的に一如であろう。
 また、イシス・オシリス神話であるが、これも同様に考えられよう。オシリスが死んで、復活するのであるが、オシリスが生死の対極性であり、イシスがイデア叡知光であろう。
 また、さらに、ユダヤ神秘思想のカバラであるが、その三元的構成は、ここでの考え方で説明できるだろう。中央に対して、両極の柱があるが、それが、対極性であり、中央がイデア叡知光と考えられよう。
 また、D.H.ロレンスの「王冠」の思想であるが、父と子の二元論と、聖霊による一致であるが、父と子とが対極性であり、聖霊がイデア叡知光を指すと考えられるのである。
 結局、すべては、太極哲学に表現されているのである。そう、老子とは何哉(なんぞや)。中国とは何哉。アジア・東洋とは何哉ということになるだろう。


_______________________________

参考:

阿弥陀如来

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

阿弥陀仏 から転送)
来迎印の阿弥陀如来像(牛久大仏)
拡大
来迎印の阿弥陀如来像(牛久大仏
定印の阿弥陀如来像(鎌倉大仏)
拡大
定印の阿弥陀如来像(鎌倉大仏)
鎌倉大仏の印相
拡大
鎌倉大仏の印相

阿弥陀如来(あみだにょらい、amitaabha )は、大乗仏教如来 の一。阿弥陀仏弥陀仏などともいう。

目次

[非表示 ]

概論

「阿弥陀」はサンスクリット の「アミターユス(amitaayus)」=「無限の寿命をもつもの」、アミターバ(amitaabha)」=「無限の光をもつもの」音写したもの。意訳して、無量寿仏無量光仏とも呼ばれ、無明の現世をあまねく照らす光の仏とされる。西方にある極楽浄土 という仏国土を持つ。造形化された時は施無畏印・与願印・定印・来迎印を結ぶ。阿弥陀三尊 として祀られるときは、脇侍に観音菩薩勢至菩薩 を持つ。密教 においては、五仏(五智如来 )の一如来として尊崇される。

無量寿経 によるとインド 王族の出身だったが、世自在王仏 に出会い出家法蔵 と名乗り、非常に長期間衆生 の救済の思索をめぐらし(五 思惟(ごこうしゆい))、浄土 への往生 の手立てを見出したことにより となった報身 仏。衆生救済に関して48の願い(四十八願 )を立て、特に浄土教 において第十八願 を「本願 」と呼んで重要視する。また、現在も説法をしていると信じられている。

これを語源 とする他力本願 と云う言葉は、本来の宗教的な意味合いを離れて、「ムシのいい、他人への依存」「無責任」という意味でも広く用いられるが、本来は自分自身(自力)の力「のみならず」仏の力,他の人の力(他力)、すなわち縁の力も互いに借りて皆がより良く生きるという意味である。浄土真宗 においては、煩悩具足の凡夫は阿弥陀仏の本願、すなわち他力本願によって「のみ」往生を遂げることができるとし(絶対他力)、自力は否定されるが、この場合でも「他人依存」「無責任」は、言うまでもなく他力本願とは相容れない概念である。

チベット仏教 における副法王パンチェン・ラマ は阿弥陀如来の化身とされる。

大乗仏教 で登場した仏尊であり、その起源はゾロアスター教 に遡り、光明の最高神アフラ・マズダー が無量光如来、無限時間の神ズルワーン が無量寿如来として仏教化されたとする学説もある。また西方極楽浄土は、ゾロアスター教の起源であるペルシャ 地方、もしくは肥沃で繁栄した古代バビロニア 地方が背景になっていると考える少数派の意見もある。

垂迹神

ほか

日本における主な作例

国宝
  • 中尊寺 像 (岩手県西磐井郡平泉町)(金色堂安置諸仏のうち)
  • 高徳院 像 (神奈川県鎌倉市)(鎌倉大仏)
  • 浄土寺 像 (兵庫県小野市)(阿弥陀三尊像のうち、快慶 作、浄土堂安置)
  • 平等院 像 (京都府宇治市)(定朝 作、鳳凰堂安置)
  • 広隆寺 像 (京都市)(講堂安置)
  • 仁和寺 像 (京都市)(阿弥陀三尊像のうち、金堂安置)
  • 法界寺 像 (京都市)(阿弥陀堂安置)
  • 三千院 像 (京都市左京区)(阿弥陀三尊像のうち、往生極楽院安置)
  • 法隆寺 像 (奈良県生駒郡斑鳩町)(阿弥陀三尊像のうち、橘夫人厨子安置)
重要文化財(国指定)
  • 太山寺 像 (神戸市)(阿弥陀堂安置)
  • 圓教寺 像 (兵庫県姫路市)(常行堂安置)
  • 知恩院 像 (京都市)(阿弥陀堂安置)
  • 孝恩寺 像 (大阪府貝塚市)

関連仏典

関連宗派

関連僧侶

関連項目

Tuesday, September 26, 2006

Idea-sophia light and Proto-sunlight


Idea-sophia light and Proto-sunlight

What is the difference between Idea-sophia light and Proto-sunlight? I think this is an essential problem and one of the most difficult ones. Idea-sophia light is Proto-light of zero-degree resonant synergy of difference. Then what is Proto-sunlight?
Well, let me consider metaphorically. Let us assume that Proto-light is Dionysus and Proto-sunlight is Apollo. In my imagination, vision or intuition, the former is the Media Plane itself and the latter Proto-sun.
Well, let me tentatively assume that there are two kinds of Proto-lights in the Media Plane, that is, Proto-light of Difference-side and Proto-light of Identity-side. And the totality of both means Pro-light itself. And the former is Dionysus and the latter Apollo or Proto-sun.
Therefore, what I call Idea-sophia light should be total Proto-light.
From this viewpoint, what is called 'Dark Energy' of physics is concerned with Difference-side Proto-light or Dionysus. But exactly speaking, Dark Energy is the shadow of Difference-side Proto-light. We should pay the highest attention to this distinction.
To put these thoughts together, there is Difference-side Proto-light, Dionysus, as it were, Dark Light and Identity-side Proto-light, Apollo, Proto-sunlight. So what we see as light of the phenomena is shadow of the latter. And what I call Idea-sophia light is the totality of both Proto-lights.
So I think Nietzschean idea of Dionysus and Apollo really hit the nail on the head. In other words, ancient Greeks saw the Idea-sophia light of the Media Plane or chora. They were Orientals. I think Jewish and Christian ideas destroyed the Idea-sophia light of the Media Plane of the Orient.

the picture from below
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Waterland0_002.jpg

Introduction of A Discontinuous Difference Theory/New Platonic Synergy Theory

Mr. Kaisetsu or ODA watchers and I collaborated and created A Discontinuous Difference Theory, which I firmly believe is the overcome of postmodern thoughts and a breakthough of a new theory. Lately this theory has developed into New Platonic Synergy Theory.
The former has overcome Gilles Deleuze's philosophy of in terms of discontinuity. Deleuze's idea is based on the concept of differential, or continuous difference and we find it the very weaknes of his thought. Based on the idea of discontinuous difference, we firmly believe we created a breakthrough theory that will be able to change the paradigm of thoughts.
As for New Platonic Synergy Theory, it has developed from the former. There is a resonant synergy of discontinuous differnece in what we call the Media World in a Discontinuous Different Theory. This location or space is essentially creative. Its logic is what Mr. Daisetsu Suzuki call 'Sokuhi Logic.' I will expound these theories in details later.

difference and identity:

difference and identity:

Materialism as the outcome of modern identity hates spirit of difference or spirit of sympathy. This is the tragedy of Modernity. Money hates difference. Money destroys the spirit of Idea. We are living in the hell of Money. How can we overcome this hell of Money? Materialistic capitalism destroys the soul, mind and spirit of difference. We are living in the very Mad and Evil world of materialistic capitalism.

How can we make Exodus from this Craziest world?

Evil human beings are destroying the life of difference.

We are living in the abyss of the Identity Hell.

Monday, September 25, 2006

How does identity look at difference?


Identity looks at difference negatively. Difference looks at identity negatively. This is symmetric. It is also contradictory, antinomic or schizophrenic. But generally, identity overcomes difference and rejects it.
But there is difference in the mind. You can't turn it into nothing. I think difference is the thing itself. A viewpoint of identity cannot look at difference. Therefore identity cannot see difference in others. They look as other identities. When you see and feel something different in others, you will get negative. Because that difference will produce difference hidden within you. Identity only see identities, not difference. It negates difference.
I think identity is ego and that language is identity. Identity=ego=language This is, as it were, the trinity of identity. So when you are identity, you are nothing in terms of difference. You become general and negativity as Hegel's spirit. This is the very modernism. This is egocentrism. You have become a God, a Yahweh. This is dogmatism, solipsism, supreme arrogance and tyranny.
But there is difference hidden, which is dynamic, energetic and creative. When you are identity, you can have power of violence, but you are not creative and progressive. You remains the same. You lose creative energy and become unproductive. In dialogue between identity and difference, you get creative. Because difference can connect with another difference, it creates something new. But negated difference will revenge you. Difference will assert his being. You have to be reconciled with difference, which means you must recognize difference as difference.



Sophientific Cosmocreation
http://platonicsynegy.blogspot.com/

I introduce New Platonic Synergy Theory.
Sunday, September 24, 2006
A New Theory

I will introduce you a new total theory, New Platonic Synergy Theory, or Platonic Synergy.
I will explain it next time.
My home blog site is as follows.
http://ameblo.jp/renshi/






Dear Readers,

I have got tired of writing in Japanese. So I will try to write my thoughts in English. I think it will give me some peaceful feeling.

Readers! Please understand the platonic synergy theory. It will surely change you and make you truly creative.

Overcome Modern Mad Thoughts!
Be Transcendental enough to understand the world of Idea.
I firmly believe that Platonic Synergy is the Consummation of theories and philosophies.
It is the Breakthrough toward the New Superworld.

Sincerely,

Sophientist

the problem of a vision or seeing

the problem of a vision or seeing

What is seeing?
What is visuality?
I think to see is to have a mental vision through eyes, not by eyes.
These days, it seems to me people see by their eyes, which means only a physical, shallow vision. To see is originally to have a mental vision through physical eyes. I think there is a mental light in our spirit/mind/soul that forms a vision, receiving an outer light. I mean there is a mental vision which is also intuition or imagination. This is, as it were, everthing, or the very root of everything. What I call the plane of Media is the location where these visions are formed. That is, the very space where Platonic Ideas exist, in other words, the location of Platonic chora.

cf.
http://www.medieviste.org/scr1/archives/000441.html
http://polylogos.org/books/seguchi8.html
http://plaza.rakuten.co.jp/tetugakupapa/16001
http://www.artgene.net/dictionary/cat79/post_483.html
http://www.geocities.jp/enten_eller1120/easy/kodai-2.html
http://www.geocities.jp/enten_eller1120/ancient/sokpla.html
http://www.edp.eng.tamagawa.ac.jp/~sumioka/history/philosophy/kodai/kodai02b.html